what is computer | Uses of computer | parts of computer | History of computers

There were two billion personal computers in use throughout the world in 2014. In the present, you can imagine how much computers are used worldwide. So first things first that 
What is a computer



"What is a computer"

A computer is literally a programmable machine capable of automating the given mathematical and logical operations in sequence automatically. It can be guided arithmetically to complete numerical mathematical, logical actions and other different types of calculations accurately. Since the order of instructions can be changed to complete an action plan, the computer can execute more than one kind of action. This directive is known as computer programming and computer programming language helps the user understand the instructions. Mechanical computers were present for many centuries. The computer was developed in the middle of the twentieth century. Since then, it has become very efficient in terms of size and operation respectively. Now the computers can fit inside the clock and can be run from the electric current (battery). Different forms of personal computing such as portable computers, tablets, etc. have become everyday needs.

Traditional computers have a central operating unit (CPU) and memory for information storage. The operating unit executes arithmetic and logical calculations and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operation based on the instructions kept in memory. Peripheral or surface-mounted equipment can take information from an external source and can keep the fruit of the operation safe in memory and can be retrieved if needed.

Modern computer based on an integrated circuit is more efficient than old-fashioned computers and is able to take very little space. Normal computers are so small that mobile phones can also be absorbed and mobile computers can also work from a small power source (battery) energy. Most people have the same opinion about "computers" that in their various forms personal computer is the hero of the Information Technology era. However embedded computer, which is found in most devices such as a numerical audio player. MP3 player, aircraft and toys, in an industrial human instrument is more prevalent among people.

Common uses of home computers

History of computers


Mechanical linear (analog) computers started to emerge in the first century, which was later used for astrophysical calculations in the medieval era. It was also used. Mechanical linear computers were used in specialized military works during World War II. During this time, the computer with the first Vidyutan numeral circuit was developed. Initially, they were in the size of a large room and today's modern hundreds of computers used to consume electricity equivalent to the first electronic numerical computer was developed between the United Kingdom and the United States between 1940 and 1945.

To make calculations, the use of instruments has been used for thousands of years, especially the devices that count with Uglia. Early calculating device: Problems of matching rod, the timber on which teeth were dug for counting or a form of matching rod. Later, in the Middle East, a geographical area of ​​fertile land which resembles semi-moon in shape used to keep the clutches (clay shells, cones) used to keep the containers in hollow and hollow pots. They were used to show the count of goods (mostly livestock and cereals). Counting rods | Counting rods are an example of this.


Swan Hydro (The number displayed on this count is 6,302,715,408)
Initially, the counting was used for arithmetic functions. What we call the Roman cosmos today was used in Babylonia at the beginning of 2400 BC. Since then, many other Ganan Pattiis and Golio have been invented to make the calculations and calculations. A medieval European house was built. Pug clothes were kept on the table in the house and according to some special rules, it was used as a means to add money by running sticks.



Many analog computers were built to perform astronomical calculations in the ancient and medieval periods. These include Antiquethera process of Ancient Greece and Astrolabe (circa 150-100 BC), which are generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer.  Used for the execution of one or other kind of calculations Other early versions of mechanical devices include the invention by Planysfire and Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (around 1000 AD). Quote another mechanical computing device; Equatorium and Universal Latitude-Independent Astrolabe invented by Abu Ishq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (after about 1015 CE); Astronomical analog computers of other medieval Muslim astronomers and engineers; And the astronomical clock tower of Su Song (after about 1090 AD) during the Song Dynasty

An astronomical clock, invented by al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the first program worthy linear computer. It showed the zodiac, the orbits of Sun and Moon, in which a semi-moonlight indicator passed through a complete entry Due to which automatic patches were opened every hour and five robotic musicians who operated by a camshaft connected to a water wheel (Livero) By used to play music when killed. The day and night length can be programmed again every day in order to make it suitable for changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.

A Brief History of Computer Development

  1. 1623: German mathematician Wilhelm Sheikard developed the first mechanical calculator. This calculator was able to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
  2. 1642 AD: French mathematician Blaze Pascal invented the additive and cutting the machine.
  3. 1801: French scientist Joseph Mary Zacard demonstrated a new control system for a loom (loom). He did the programming of Loom, due to which it was possible to order a machine for Initiative Weaving Operation through a pattern of a hole in paper cards.
  4. 1833-71: British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage created an 'Analytical Engine' using the Jaccard Punch Card system. It can be considered a precursor to current computers. Babbage's thinking was far ahead of his time and his invention was not given much importance.
  5. 1889: American engineer Herman Hollerith patented the 'Electro Mechanical Punch Card Tableting System', which could make it possible to work on a large number of statistical statistics. This machine was used in the American Census.
  6. 1941: German engineer Conardeus invented the first fully functional digital computer Z3 which could be controlled by the program. Z3 was not an electronic computer. It was based on electric switches called the relay.
  7. 1942: Physicist John Vincent Atanasoff and his colleague Clifford Berry of Iowa State College created the first fully functional model of the electronic computer in which vacuum tubes were used. It could be worked faster than a relay. This was not the initial computer programmable.
  8. 1944: IBM and Harvard University Professor Howard Aiken created the first large scale automatic digital computer 'Mark-1'. This relay-based machine was 55 feet long and 8 feet high.
  9. 1943: British scientists created electronic computers 'Colossus' to break German codes during World War II.
  10. 1946: Physicist John Motley and engineer J. Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania for the American Army. Presaker Echert created 'Electronic Numerical Integrated and Computer - Iniic' (ENIAC). There were about 18,000 vacuum tubes in this room size 30-ton computer. Iniik could be programmed to perform different tasks.
  11. 1951: Echert and Mauchly created the first commercial computer 'UNIVAC' (US USA).
  12. 1969-71E: 'Unix operating system' was developed in Bell Laboratories.
  13. 1971: Intel has developed the first commercial microprocessor '4004'. The microprocessor is a complete computer programming unit on the chip.
  14. 1975: Commercially the first successful personal computer 'MITS Altair 8800' was launched in the market. This kit was in the form, which did not have a keyboard and video display.
  15. 1976: The creation of the first-word programming program 'Electric Pencil' for personal computers.
  16. 1977: Apple brought 'Apple-II' into the market, making it possible to display colorful text and graphics.
  17. 1981: IBM introduced its personal computer market, where DOS (disk operating system) of Microsoft was used.
  18. 1984: Apple rolls out the first Macintosh market. It was the first computer in which GUI (graphical user interface) and mouse were available.
  19. 1990: Microsoft launched the first wave of its graphical user interface 'Windows 3.0' in the market.
  20. 1991: Helsinki University student Linus Torvalds invented 'Linux' for the personal computer.
  21. 1996: Handheld Computer 'Palm Pilot' was launched in the market.
  22. 2001: Apple launches Unix based operating system 'Mac OS X' for Macintosh
  23. 2002: According to Computer Industry Research firm Gartner Data Quest, the number of manufacturing computers reached 1 billion from 1975 to the present.
  24. 2005: Apple announced that it will start using Intel microprocessors in its Macintosh computers since 2006.

Parts of the computer

  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU), Resource Device or Idea Devices - This is the original operational unit of the computer which works according to the data provided by the incoming device and sends it to the unit issued to it. It has three parts:
  2. Book or register - The data or information that the first person has to work on, is marked in the book by computer memory. There are different books for different processes, after the operation of the numerical and logic unit, the information is recorded in the book and sent back to the memory.
  3. Assessment and logic unit - This unit works according to instructions on the information recorded in the book and registers the result again in the appropriate book.
  4. Control unit - It controls all the functions of the central cosmetic unit. As such, the unit controls the information from memory in the numerical and logic unit, in the back book and on the process of returning from there to memory.
  5. Output Devices - This includes all the tools from which the information or content that is processed comes out as a human useful product. like-
Exhibit (monitors) - The processed material appears in its visual form. The picture screen appears on the screen. It is linked to the exhibitor.
Printer- The material released with the help of it is printed on the paper. It is also called a printer in the English language.
Bhonputu - it also speaks as a speaker, as the name suggests, it works to remove the voice. It is used to access the voice generated from any of the ongoing processes in the computer.


Uses of computer

  • Email
  • Collaboration
  • Cherish information
  • Accounting
  • Word processing
  • Book Publishing
  • Content Influence
  • Scientific research and development
  • Telecommunication
  • Education dissemination
  • Simulation
  • Computer Assisted Design (CAD)
  • Computer Assisted Design and Drafting / CADD

Computer Benefits and Loss

Benefits:
  • This is the best medium of communication
  • This makes it easier to share any resource
  • This is the best device to share all types of files
  • This is a cheap device
  • It saves time
  • There is a lot of room to keep a document in it
  • By understanding it very easily, it can be worked on
The loss:
  • Wrong use is a waste of time
  • It reduces physical activity
  • Blood circulation is not known right
  • Eating more food and increasing obesity
  • The complaint of pain in the waist and head
  • Anorexia
  • Discomfort of insomnia
  • If you use a laptop on your thigh, you can become impotent.

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